Tax Deduction at Source (TDS) is a system, initially introduced by the Income Tax Department. It is one of the modes/methods to collect tax, under which, certain percentage of amount is deducted by a recipient at the time of making payment to the supplier. It is similar to “pay as you earn” scheme also known as Withholding Tax, in many other countries. It facilitates sharing of responsibility of tax collection between the deductor and the tax administration. It also ensures regular inflow of cash resources to the Government. It acts as a powerful instrument to prevent tax evasion and expands the tax net, as it provides for the creation of an audit trail.
It is to be noted that with an objective of ensuring smooth rollout of GST, the provisions of Tax Deduction at Source (Section 51 of the CGST / SGST Act 2017) and Tax Collection at Source (Section 52 of the CGST/SGST Act, 2017) was postponed.
Now CBIC has issued Notification No. 50/2018 – Central Tax and Notification No. 51/2018 – Central Tax dated 13.09.2018 and had declared the effective date of TDS and TCS provisions under GST.
Brief Provisions of TDS under GST is covered as under.
- Deductor (who is responsible to deduct tax)
As per section 51 of CGST act ,following persons are responsible to deduct TDS under GST
- (a) A department or an establishment of the Central Government or State Government; or
- (b) Local authority; or
- (c) Governmental agencies;
Further as per Notification 50/2018 dated 13.09.2018 following persons are added in the eligible category of deductor in addition to three defined in the section 51 itself.
(d) Other notified Persons as under (notification 50/2018 dated 13.09.2018)
(1) an authority or a board or any other body, -
- (i) set up by an Act of Parliament or a State Legislature; or
- (ii) established by any Government,
with fifty-one per cent. or more participation by way of equity or control, to carry out any function;
(2) Society established by the Central Government or the State Government or a Local Authority under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860);
(3) public sector undertakings.
- Deductee (from whom the tax is to be deducted)
Supplier who have supplied the taxable goods or services or both to the deductor.It means if goods or services are not taxable under GST then TDS can not be deducted under GST act.
- Cut off amount
The tax would be deducted @1% of the payment made to the supplier (the deductee) of taxable goods or services or both, where the total value of such supply, under a contract, exceeds two lakh fifty thousand rupees (excluding the amount of Central tax, State tax, Union Territory tax, Integrated tax and cess indicated in the invoice). Thus, individual supplies may be less than Rs. 2,50,000/-, but if contract value is more than Rs. 2,50,000/-, TDS will have to be deducted.
The value is be checked contract wise and not periodic or yearly unlike in TDS in Income tax.
- Rate of TDS
The prescribed rate of tax to be deducted at source is a 1% from the payment made or credited to the supplier of taxable goods and / or services.So deduct 1% SGST and 1% CGST for Intra-state transaction and 2% IGST in case of Inter state transaction .
- Time of deduction of Tax
The deduction is required to be made from the payment made or credited to the supplier
- When no tax is to be deducted
1. No deduction shall be made if the location of the supplier and the place of supply is in a State or Union territory, which is different from the State, or as the case may be, Union Territory of registration of the recipient.
The earlier statement can be explained in the following situations:
(a) Supplier, place of supply and recipient are in the same state. It would be intra-State supply and TDS (Central plus State tax) shall be deducted. It would be possible for the supplier (i.e. the deductee) to take credit of TDS in his electronic cash ledger.
(b) Supplier as well as the place of supply are in different states. In such cases, Integrated tax would be levied. TDS to be deducted would be TDS (Integrated tax) and it would be possible for the supplier (i.e. the deductee) to take credit of TDS in his electronic cash ledger.
(c) Supplier as well as the place of supply are in State A and the recipient is located in State B. The supply would be intra-State supply and Central tax and State tax would be levied. In such case, transfer of TDS (Central tax + State tax of State B) to the cash ledger of the supplier (Central tax + State tax of State A) would be difficult. So in such cases, TDS would not be deducted.
Thus, when both the supplier as well as the place of supply are different from that of the recipient, no tax deduction at source would be made.
2. If the contract value is less than Rs 250000 then No tds is to be deducted.
- Credit Claim of TDS amount by the Deductee?
Yes, the Deductee can claim credit of the tax deducted, in his electronic cash ledger. This deduction would also be reflected in the return of the Deductor filed under subsection (3) of Section 39, in the manner prescribed.
- Registration of TDS deductors
A TDS deductor has to compulsorily register without any threshold limit. The deductor has a privilege of obtaining registration under GST without requiring PAN. He can obtain registration using his Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN) issued under the Income Tax Act, 1961.
- Deposit of TDS with the Government
The amount of tax deducted at source should be deposited to the Government account by the deductor by 10th of the succeeding month. The deductor would be liable to pay interest if the tax deducted is not deposited within the prescribed time limit.
- TDS Certificate
A TDS certificate is required to be issued by deductor (the person who is deducting tax) in Form GSTR-7A to the deductee (the supplier from whose payment TDS is deducted), within 5 days of crediting the amount to the Government, failing which the deductor would be liable to pay a late fee of Rs. 100/- per day from the expiry of the 5th day till the certificate is issued. This late fee would not be more than Rs. 5000/-. For the purpose of deduction of tax specified above, the value of supply shall be taken as the amount excluding the Central tax, State tax, Union territory tax, Integrated tax and cess indicated in the invoice.
For instance, suppose a supplier makes a supply worth Rs. 1000/- to a recipient and the GST @ rate of 18% is required to be paid. The recipient, while making the payment of Rs. 1000/- to the supplier, shall deduct 1% viz Rs. 10/- as TDS. The value for TDS purpose shall not include 18% GST. The TDS, so deducted, shall be deposited in the account of Government by 10th of the succeeding month. The TDS so deposited in the Government account shall be reflected in the electronic cash ledger of the supplier (i.e. deductee) who would be able to use the same for payment of tax or any other amount. The purpose of TDS is just to enable the Government to have a trail of transactions and to monitor and verify the compliances.
- TDS Return
The deductor is also required to file a return in Form GSTR-7 within 10 days from the end of the month. If the supplier is unregistered, name of the supplier rather than GSTIN shall be mentioned in the return. The details of tax deducted at source furnished by the deductor in FORM GSTR-7 shall be made available to each of the suppliers in Part C of FORM GSTR-2A electronically through the Common Portal and the said supplier may include the same in FORM GSTR-2. The amounts deducted by the deductor get reflected in the GSTR-2 of the supplier (deductee). The supplier can take this amount as credit in his electronic cash register and use the same for payment of tax or any other liability.
- Consequences of not complying with TDS provisions:
- Refund of Excess TDS
Any excess or erroneous amount deducted and paid to the Government account shall be dealt for refund under section 54 of the CGST Act, 2017. However, if the deducted amount is already credited to the electronic cash ledger of the supplier, the same shall not be refunded.
Read Section 51 Text from Page-2
Section 51. Tax deduction at source
(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Act, the Government may mandate,––
(a) a department or establishment of the Central Government or State Government; or
(b) local authority; or
(c) Governmental agencies; or
(d) such persons or category of persons as may be notified by the Government on the recommendations of the Council, (hereafter in this section referred to as “the deductor”),
to deduct tax at the rate of one per cent. from the payment made or credited to the supplier (hereafter in this section referred to as “the deductee”) of taxable goods or services or both, where the total value of such supply, under a contract, exceeds two lakh and fifty thousand rupees:
Provided that no deduction shall be made if the location of the supplier and the place of supply is in a State or Union territory which is different from the State or as the case may be, Union territory of registration of the recipient.
Explanation.––For the purpose of deduction of tax specified above, the value of supply shall be taken as the amount excluding the central tax, State tax, Union territory tax, integrated tax and cess indicated in the invoice.
(2) The amount deducted as tax under this section shall be paid to the Government by the deductor within ten days after the end of the month in which such deduction is made, in such manner as may be prescribed.
(3) The deductor shall furnish to the deductee a certificate mentioning therein the contract value, rate of deduction, amount deducted, amount paid to the Government and such other particulars in such manner as may be prescribed.
(4) If any deductor fails to furnish to the deductee the certificate, after deducting the tax at source, within five days of crediting the amount so deducted to the Government, the deductor shall pay, by way of a late fee, a sum of one hundred rupees per day from the day after the expiry of such five days period until the failure is rectified, subject to a maximum amount of five thousand rupees.
(5) The deductee shall claim credit, in his electronic cash ledger, of the tax deducted and reflected in the return of the deductor furnished under sub-section (3) of section 39, in such manner as may be prescribed.
(6) If any deductor fails to pay to the Government the amount deducted as tax under sub-section (1), he shall pay interest in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 50, in addition to the amount of tax deducted.
(7) The determination of the amount in default under this section shall be made in the manner specified in section 73 or section 74.
(8) The refund to the deductor or the deductee arising on account of excess or erroneous deduction shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of section 54:
Provided that no refund to the deductor shall be granted, if the amount deducted has been credited to the electronic cash ledger of the deductee.